The Clingendael International Energy Programme (CIEP), the Loyola de Palacio Programme of the European University Institute, the Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM) and Wilton Park (WP) organised a four-tier project to discuss the potential for a smart EU Energy Policy. The project consisted of three workshops where academics discussed the various interactions between the three core objectives of EU energy policy with stakeholders from governments, regulators, and industry. Following the three workshops a conference took place to examine the workshop reports and to formulate overall project conclusions and recommendations. The objective of the project was to come out with a set of “smart” conclusions and recommendations for the 2010 EU energy policy review. The deliberations at the four project meetings greatly informed the views expressed in this policy brief, but those views belong to the authors only and do not necessarily represent those of individual participants at the meetings or of the four supporting organizations.