Firm-level data for the Czech Republic during 1992-96 suggest that foreign investment has tended to flow to firms of above average size, initial profitability and initial labor productivity. After controlling for this selection bias, we find that foreign investment has a positive, but statistically insignificant, impact on TFP (Total Factor Productivity) growth. This is surprising, given that there is a presumption that foreign investors should be transferring new technologies and knowledge to partner firms. Spillovers associated with a foreign investment presence in an industry are found to be negatively correlated with domestic firm performance, while imports are found to have a significant positive effect on TFP growth of such firms. We conclude that trade (imports) appears to have played an important role as a channel for improved performance of Czech enterprises.