2 minuti di lettura

The recent processes of constitutionalisation in the Southern bank of the Mediterranean Sea have had legal, political and social consequences of remarkable relevance. At the centre of the debate surrounding these dynamics is the quest for a balance between the needs of a laic and modern State and the role played by the religious authority in inspiring how the State itself is to function. On July 3, 2013, at FEEM headquarters in Milan, senior adviser on constitutional building for International IDEA Zaid Al-Ali offered a unique and analytical vision of these processes.

  • Does the current situation in Egypt surprise you or did you forecast it?
  • Millions of people are on the street. Probably this is one of the biggest protests not only in North Africa but also in this part of the world over the last 50 years. Is it only an economic issue or also a political and constitutional one?
  • A lot of political, economic and social actors are involved in the failure of the transition process. What will happen next? We have almost a military coup, a deadline for Morsi, and last night Morsi and the Muslim Brotherhood said "we will resist until death". What will happen next in your opinion?
  • Millions of people are on the street. From an Italian and European point of view it is unclear whether they are asking for Morsi’s resignation, a better economy or else. What are they demonstrating for?
  • Do you think that this time – like in the post-Mubarak process – the solution will come from a foreign country, e.g. the US or the European Union, or do you think this is an internal issue?


  • Talking about the transition process in Egypt, but also in Tunisia, Libya, Iraq, what is the most difficult point to resolve that does not allow for a peaceful transition in these countries? It’s a religious issue or a cultural one? Does it depend on the fact that in the last 50, 100 years they lived in countries without a democratic process?
  • Does this explain – in your opinion – why in the last months the Muslim Brotherhood took hold of all the constitutional reforms? Do you think that the lack of trust of the other side of the opposition explains why the opposition left the constitutional transition and it is now managed by the Muslim Brotherhood?
  • My next question is about Jordan. Sometimes we have news about protests against the King, sometimes there is no news at all. What is happening in Jordan? Do we have an Arab upspring in Jordan as well or it is a completely different situation?


  • We are convinced that the Arab Springs spread thanks to the social networks. Is it your opinion or do you think that the real issue is economic and not the impact that the social networks had?
  • Could you sum-up for us the drafting process and underline where it is weak and what could be the consequences? From a point of view on the constitutional framework – what could be the next step? Rewriting it? Making some changes and having again a chaotic situation?