Globalisation has marked a change in the way Latin America has approached welfare issues. Since the 1980s the adoption of economic policies inspired by neo-liberalism have brought about economic growth as well as an increase in the informal job sector and growing urbanization. The measures adopted to tackle the challenges posed by welfare are manifold and require deep investigation. In this scenario, anthropologists and historians from Mexico and Italy will convene in Oaxaca, Mexico, to debate on the multiple forms of welfare in Latin America, from institutional to indigenous welfare. Particular attention will be devoted to border areas and topics ranging from health to housing, migration, children care and the role played by local communities, including the church and religious communities.