Climate change negotiations in the framework of the UNFCCC are expected to lead to the adoption of an international agreement at the 21st session of the Conference of the Parties in Paris at the end of 2015. The future agreement should combine a top-down approach, based on monitoring, reporting, and verification, with bottom-up elements, such as “nationally determined contributions” to reduce emissions by States Parties on the basis of their respective national circumstances. Beside the mitigation commitments, key elements of the climate change regime already are – and will continue to be – the responses to adaptation and the mechanisms to facilitate financial and technology transfer. To ensure the effectiveness of this complex regulatory system, adequate compliance controls will also need to be established. During this seminar the draft text of the future agreement will be critically examined to consider how these issues are addressed and to share thoughts on the solutions that are currently on the negotiating tables.