Hungary is home to a great diversity of plant and animal species, whose preservation is of global value. This paper focuses on the institutional aspects of the research project on on-farm conservation of crop genetic resources in three Environmentally Sensitive Areas of Hungary (Dévaványa, Õrség-Vendvidék, Szatmár-Bereg). Implemented by the Institute of Environmental Management, St. István University and the Institute for Agrobotany in partnership with the International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, the project consists of an interdisciplinary institutional, economic, and scientific analysis. The main goal of the project is to develop a scientific understanding about the current and potential socio-economic role of agrobiodiversity maintained in home gardens. The first aim of the institutional analysis carried out by this paper is to identify the institutions and organisations that have significant impact on the seed choices and seed maintenance practices of farmers, and hence, on their access to genetic resources. The second aim is to identify and analyse different stakeholders’ perceptions of the issue at hand, as well as their interests and the values they ascribe to them.