Highly urbanised countries in Africa have now escaped the low-income status to become middle-income. Consequently, urbanisation is often seen as a successful strategy to reach the economic development of African cities. Nevertheless, problems related to the negative environmental consequences of urbanisation (pollutants emissions, traffic congestion, waste management) and the insufficient capacity to provide adequate infrastructures and services become secondary with respect to the goal of economic development. These problems emerge strikingly in large cities, where they have become far too large and they impact the economic growth of the country. Indeed, rapid urbanisation leaves cities unable to provide services such as housing, security, infrastructure and jobs. In many countries, economic growth and the strong rural-urban migration has not benefited the poorest. Furthermore, climate change extreme events hamper development gains, and limited access to affordable and sustainable energy impedes productivity. FEEM gathers world experts to unravel the main challenges and opportunities for African cities towards a sustainable growth.